Transportation


by: aayush210789



IIntroduction
 Transportation engineering is the application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, efficient, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods
Transportation engineering, as practiced by civil engineers, primarily involves planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of transportation facilities. The facilities support air, highway, railroad, pipeline, water, and even space transportation.
Highway engineering is an engineering discipline branching from Transportation engineering that involves the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of roads, bridges, and tunnels to ensure safe and effective transportation of people and goods 
Highway engineers must take into account future traffic flows, design of highway intersections/interchanges, geometric alignment and design, highway pavement materials and design, structural design of pavement thickness, and pavement maintenance. 
IIGeometric Design
 Highway and transportation engineers must meet many safety, service, and performance standards when designing highways for certain site topography. Highway geometric design primarily refers to the visible elements of the highways.

There are certain considerations that must be properly addressed in the design process to successfully fit a highway to a site's topography and maintain its safety. Some of these design considerations include:

  • Design speed
  • Design traffic volume
  • Number of lanes
  • Level of Service (LOS)
  • Sight Distance
  • Alignment, super-elevation, and grades
  • Cross section
  • Lane width
  • Horizontal and vertical clearance
 
IIIDesign Speed
Design speed is the single most important factor that affects the geometric design. It directly affects the sight distance, horizontal curve, and the length of vertical curves. Since the speed of vehicles vary with driver, terrain etc, a design speed is adopted for all the geometric design.
Design speed is defined as the highest continuous speed at which individual vehicles can travel with safety on the highway when weather conditions are conducive.

IVDesign Speed for Rural Highways as per IRC-73
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VDesign speed for Urban roads as per IRC-86
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VIRoad Classification

Road classification

The roads can be classified in many ways. The classification based on speed and accessibility is the most generic one. Note that as the accessibility of road increases, the speed reduces. (See figure 1). Accordingly, the roads can classified as follows in the order of increased accessibility and reduced speeds.
  • Freeways: Freeways are access controlled divided highways. Most freeways are four lanes, two lanes each direction, but many freeways widen to incorporate more lanes as they enter urban areas. Access is controlled through the use of interchanges, and the type of interchange depends upon the kind of intersecting road way (rural roads, another freeway etc.)
  • Expressways: They are superior type of highways and are designed for high speeds ( 120 km/hr is common), high traffic volume and safety. They are generally provided with grade separations at intersections. Parking, loading and unloading of goods and pedestrian traffic is not allowed on expressways.
  • Highways: They represent the superior type of roads in the country. Highways are of two types - rural highways and urban highways. Rural highways are those passing through rural areas (villages) and urban highways are those passing through large cities and towns, ie. urban areas.
  • Arterials: It is a general term denoting a street primarily meant for through traffic usually on a continuous route. They are generally divided highways with fully or partially controlled access. Parking, loading and unloading activities are usually restricted and regulated. Pedestrians are allowed to cross only at intersections/designated pedestrian crossings.
  • Local streets : A local street is the one which is primarily intended for access to residence, business or abutting property. It does not normally carry large volume of traffic and also it allows unrestricted parking and pedestrian movements.
  • Collectors streets: These are streets intended for collecting and distributing traffic to and from local streets and also for providing access to arterial streets. Normally full access is provided on these streets . There are few parking restrictions except during peak hours.
Figure 1: Speed vs accessibility
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